Computer Terminology – Examples of Computer Hardware and Software

A computer is an apparatus that is programmed to execute certain series of logical or arithmetic operations automatically. Modern computer systems can execute very broad ranges of activities including logical operations and mathematical calculations. Some modern computers run applications, which can perform administrative, business and web-related tasks. Modern desktop and laptop computers also perform foreign language translation, web-based application development, image processing and other activities not included in the traditional BSC and Oracle operating systems.


Computers are used for performing different types of logical operations. It is considered one of the most important parts of any enterprise. In large companies, computer servers are located in data centers. The server computers store all the important data and information that need to be accessed frequently by different users in the company. Different types of logical operations performed by a computer to include word processing, spreadsheets, financial transactions, email messaging, web applications and others. Some laptops nowadays are equipped with software designed to execute various tasks.

A computer storage device refers to a device that holds programs, databases and other data and is used to store applications and programs on a removable medium. Computer storage devices are categorized according to the media that they are stored in and their size. The different types of computer storage devices include external hard drives, external hard diskettes, CD-ROMs, DVD disks, cable drives, floppy disks, web drives and others.

Computer software refers to a program that is designed to operate on a computer. It is installed on the computer and enables the user to use the computer’s facilities. This type of computer software is usually stored on a computer card that is attached to the computer through a USB or other media. Desktop computers normally come with built-in desktop software while laptop computers come with installed software on the hard drives. Desktop computers are more expensive than laptop computers and are mainly used for business users.

Computer hardware is also classified according to the type of technology that they possess. Monolithic technology includes components that are manufactured in one unit. Integrated technology includes components that are made inside a computer case and have the similar architecture with the external counterpart. Memory technology is used to specify the quantity and speed of memory that is available in a computer. Components such as scanners, printers, keyboards, monitors, video cards, integrated processors and other integrated devices make up an integrated system.

There are many other categories in the field of computers and their components. Some of the most common examples are the following: personal computers, mainframe computers, server computers, mainframe computers, ultra portable computers, desktop computers, notebook computers and tablet computers. Each category has different specifications and uses different terms. They can also function in very different ways.